In a lot of ethical discussions I've been having recently, the issue of responsibility has come up, in the sense of being morally responsible for a particular action. Is there a philosophical school of ethics that deals with responsibility and blame - a kind of 'blameology'? If there is, I'd love someone to point me towards it.
Utilitarianism, of course, has a coherent theory of blaming: someone should be publicly blamed when doing so increases utility (by socially deprecating the actions of the person in question, for example) and privately blamed when doing so increases utility (by shaping one's own preferences not to act like the person in question.) I imagine that Kant had clear ideas about when to blame people as well: putting it simply, whenever people run afoul of his deontology they become bad people, and ought to be blamed by all good people.
Where I run into trouble is in thinking about the way blame relates to responsibility. Here are a few ethical questions that I think are non-trivial:
Is responsibility a zero-sum game? For instance, if somebody else assumes some amount of responsibility for an action A that I have taken, does my responsibility for A lessen by that amount?
Does responsibility require knowledge? For instance, if my action A has an effect that I am unaware of, whether positive or negative, am I responsible for that effect?
Are blame and responsibility directly related? Should people be blamed for all morally negative actions that they're responsible for - and if so, should they be blamed only to the extent that they're responsible?